Instituto de Biotecnologia UNAM

IBT-UNAM : Dra. Maria Alejandra Bravo de la Parra


Dra. Maria Alejandra Bravo de la Parra

Líder Académico »» Grupo


Tutor de Maestría y Doctorado

Nivel III del SNI

Departamento de Microbiología Molecular

Líneas de investigación


- Licenciatura: Investigacion Biomedica Basica, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas-UNAM (1985)
- Maestría: Investigacion Biomedica Basica, CIFN-UNAM (1986)
- Doctorado: Investigacion Biomedica Basica, CIFN-UNAM (1989)
- Mencion honorífica en examen profesional (1985)
- Mencion honorífica en examen de Doctorado
- Medalla "Gabino Barreda", Licenciatura (1985)
- Medalla "Gabino Barreda", Doctorado (1989)
- Estancia de Investigación: Companía Biotecnologica "Plant Genetic Systems", Gante, Belgica (1990-1991)

Medalla Omecihuatl Inmujeres Instituto de las Mujeres de la Ciudad de México (2013)
Premio a la mejor Investigación en Biotecnología Agrícola AgroBIO-México (2003)
Incluída en la lista de Expertos en Bioseguridad bajo el Protocolo de Cartagena de Seguridad y la Convención sobre Diversidad Biológica Universidad de Colombia (2003)
Miembro de la Academia Nacional de Ciencias (2002)
Disitnción Universidad Nacional para Jóvenes Académicos en el área de investigación en Ciencias Naturales UNAM (2000)
Premio de la Academia Mexicana de Ciencias en el área de Ciencias Naturales (1998)


M.C. Pablo Emiliano Canton

M.B Mary Carmen Torres

M.C. Violeta Matus

Publicaciones recientes

Pacheco,S. Canton,E. Zuniga-Navarrete,F. Pecorari,F. Bravo,A. Soberon,M. 2015. Improvement and efficient display of Bacillus thuringiensis toxins on M13 phages and ribosomes AMB Express, 5, 73.

Tabashnik,B.E. Zhang,M. Fabrick,J.A. Wu,Y. Gao,M. Huang,F. Wei,J. Zhang,J. Yelich,A. Unnithan,G.C. Bravo,A. Soberon,M. Carriere,Y. Li,X. 2015. Dual mode of action of Bt proteins: protoxin efficacy against resistant insects Scientific Reports, 5, 15107.

Shu,C. Tan,S. Yin,J. Soberon,M. Bravo,A. Liu,C. Geng,L. Song,F. Li,K. Zhang,J. 2015. Assembling of Holotrichia parallela (dark black chafer) midgut tissue transcriptome and identification of midgut proteins that bind to Cry8Ea toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 99, 7209-7218.

Monnerat,R. Martins,E. Macedo,C. Queiroz,P. Praca,L. Soares,C.M. Moreira,H. Grisi,I. Silva,J. Soberon,M. Bravo,A. 2015. Evidence of Field-Evolved Resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda to Bt Corn Expressing Cry1F in Brazil That Is Still Sensitive to Modified Bt Toxins PLoS ONE, 10, e0119544.

Zuniga-Navarrete,F. Gomez,I. Pena,G. Amaro,I. Ortiz,E. Becerril,B. Ibarra,J.E. Bravo,A. Soberon,M. 2015. Identification of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa toxin domain II loop 1 as the binding site of Tenebrio molitor cadherin repeat CR12 Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 59, 50-57.

Gomez,I. Flores,B. Bravo,A. Soberon,M. 2015. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1AbMod toxin counters tolerance associated with low cadherin expression but not that associated with low alkaline phosphatase expression in Manduca sexta Peptides, 68, 130-133.

Garcia,K. Ibarra,J.E. Bravo,A. Diaz,J. Gutierrez,D. Torres,P.V. Gomez de Leon P. 2015. Variability of Bacillus thuringiensis Strains by ERIC-PCR and Biofilm Formation Current Microbiology, 70, 10-18.

Chavez,C. Recio-Totoro,B. Flores-Escobar,B. Lanz-Mendoza,H. Sanchez,J. Soberon,M. Bravo,A. 2015. Nitric oxide participates in the toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin to kill Manduca sexta larvae Peptides, 68, 134-139.

Monnerat,R. Pereira,E. Teles,B. Martins,E. Praca,L. Queiroz,P. Soberon,M. Bravo,A. Ramos,F. Soares,C.M. 2014. Synergistic activity of Bacillus thuringiensis toxins against Simulium spp. larvae Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 121, 70-73.

Gomez,I. Sanchez,J. Munoz-Garay,C. Matus,V. Gill,S.S. Soberon,M. Bravo,A. 2014. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxins are versatile-proteins with multiple modes of action: two distinct pre-pores are involved in toxicity Biochemical Journal, 459, 383-396.

Canton,P.E. Lopez-Diaz,J.A. Gill,S.S. Bravo,A. Soberon,M. 2014. Membrane binding and oligomer membrane insertion are necessary but insufficient for Bacillus thuringiensis Cyt1Aa toxicity Peptides, 53, 286-291.

Portugal,L. Gringorten,J.L. Caputo,G.F. Soberon,M. Munoz-Garay,C. Bravo,A. 2014. Toxicity and mode of action of insecticidal Cry1A proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis in an insect cell line, CF-1 Peptides, 53, 292-299.

Tabashnik,B.E. Fabrick,J.A. Unnithan,G.C. Yelich,A.J. Masson,L. Zhang,J. Bravo,A. Soberon,M. 2013. Efficacy of Genetically Modified Bt Toxins Alone and in Combinations Against Pink Bollworm Resistant to Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab PLoS ONE, 8, e80496.

Lopez-Diaz,J.A. Canton,P.E. Gill,S.S. Soberon,M. Bravo,A. 2013. Oligomerization is a key step in Cyt1Aa membrane insertion and toxicity but not necessary to synergize Cry11Aa toxicity in Aedes aegypti larvae Environmental Microbiology, 15, 3030-3039.

Garcia-Gomez,B.I. Sanchez,J. Martinez de Castro,D.L. Ibarra,J.E. Bravo,A. Soberon,M. 2013. Efficient production of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1AMod toxins under regulation of cry3Aa promoter and single cysteine mutations in the protoxin region Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 79, 6969-6973.

Flores-Escobar,B. Rodriguez-Magadan,H. Bravo,A. Soberon,M. Gomez,I. 2013. Differential role of Manduca sexta aminopeptidase-N and alkaline phosphatase in the mode of action of Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 79, 4543-4550.

Bedoya-Perez,L.P. Cancino-Rodezno,A. Flores-Escobar,B. Soberon,M. Bravo,A. 2013. Role of UPR Pathway in Defense Response of Aedes aegypti against Cry11Aa Toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 14, 8467-8478.

Zuniga-Navarrete,F. Gomez,I. Pena,G. Bravo,A. Soberon,M. 2013. A Tenebrio molitor GPI-anchored alkaline phosphatase is involved in binding of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa to brush border membrane vesicles Peptides, 41, 81-86.

Soberon,M. Lopez-Diaz,J.A. Bravo,A. 2013. Cyt toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis: A protein fold conserved in several pathogenic microorganisms Peptides, 41, 87-93.

Pardo-Lopez,L. Soberon,M. Bravo,A. 2013. Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal 3-domain Cry toxins: Mode of action, insect resistance and consequences for crop protection FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 37, 3-22.

Bravo,A. Gomez,I. Porta,H. Garcia-Gomez,B.I. Rodriguez-Almazan,C. Pardo,L. Soberon,M. 2013. Evolution of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins insecticidal activity Microbial Biotechnology, 6, 17-26.

Jimenez,A.I. Reyes,E.Z. Cancino-Rodezno,A. Bedoya-Perez,L.P. Caballero-Flores,G.G. Muriel-Millan,L.F. Likitvivatanavong,S. Gill,S.S. Bravo,A. Soberon,M. 2012. Aedes aegypti alkaline phosphatase ALP1 is a functional receptor of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa toxins Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 42, 683-689.

Soberon,M. Rodriguez-Almazan,C. Munoz-Garay,C. Pardo-Lopez,L. Porta,H. Bravo,A. 2012. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry and Cyt mutants useful to counter toxin action in specific environments and to overcome insect resistance in the field Pesticide Biochemistry And Physiology, 104, 111-117.

Cancino-Rodezno,A. Lozano,L. Oppert,C. Castro,J.I. Lanz-Mendoza,H. Encarnacion,S. Evans,A.E. Gill,S.S. Soberon,M. Jurat-Fuentes,J.L. Bravo,A. 2012. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Aedes aegypti Larval Midgut after Intoxication with Cry11Aa Toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis PLoS ONE, 7, e37034.

Rodriguez-Almazan,C. Reyes,E.Z. Zuniga-Navarrete,F. Munoz-Garay,C. Gomez,I. Evans,A.M. Likitvivatanavong,S. Bravo,A. Gill,S.S. Soberon,M. 2012. Cadherin binding is not a limiting step for Bacillus thuringiensis subs. israelensis Cry4Ba toxicity to Aedes aegypti larvae Biochemical Journal, 443, 711-717.

Porta,H. Munoz-Minutti,C. Soberon,M. Bravo,A. 2011. Induction of Manduca sexta Larvae Caspases Expression in Midgut Cells by Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab Toxin Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, , Article ID 938249.

Tabashnik,B.E. Huang,F. Ghimire,M.N. Leonard,B.R. Siegfried,B.D. Rangasamy,M. Yang,Y. Wu,Y. Gahan,L.J. Heckel,D.G. Bravo,A. Soberon,M. 2011. Efficacy of genetically modified Bt toxins against insects with different genetic mechanisms of resistance Nature Biotechnology, 29, 1128-1131.

Porta,H. Jimenez,G. Cordoba,E. Leon,P. Soberon,M. Bravo,A. 2011. Tobacco plants expressing the Cry1AbMod toxin suppress tolerance to Cry1Ab toxin of Manduca sexta cadherin-silenced larvae Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 41, 513-519.

Carmona,D. Rodriguez-Almazan,C. Munoz-Garay,C. Portugal,L. Perez,C. de Maagd,R.A. Bakker,P. Soberon,M. Bravo,A. 2011. Dominant Negative Phenotype of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab, Cry11Aa and Cry4Ba Mutants Suggest Hetero-Oligomer Formation among Different Cry Toxins PLoS ONE, 6, e19952.

Zavala,L.E. Pardo-Lopez,L. Canton,P.E. Gomez,I. Soberon,M. Bravo,A. 2011. Domains II and III of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin remain exposed to the solvent after insertion of part of domain I into the membrane Journal of Biological Chemistry, 286, 19109-19117 [Correction: vol 287 p 34499].

Bravo,A. Likitvivatanavong,S. Gill,S.S. Soberon,M. 2011. Bacillus thuringiensis: A story of a successful bioinsecticide Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 41, 423-431.

Likitvivatanavong,S. Chen,J. Evans,A.M. Bravo,A. Soberon,M. Gill,S.S. 2011. Multiple Receptors as Targets of Cry Toxins in Mosquitoes Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59, 2829-2838.

Rodriguez-Almazan,C. Ruiz de Escudero,I. Canton,P.E. Munoz-Garay,C. Perez,C. Gill,S.S. Soberon,M. Bravo,A. 2011. The amino- and carboxyl-terminal fragments of the Bacillus thuringiensis Cyt1Aa toxin have differential roles on toxin oligomerization and pore formation Biochemistry, 50, 388-396.

Terenius,O. Papanicolaou,A. Garbutt,J.S. Eleftherianos,I. Huvenne,H. Sriramana,K. Albrechtsen,M. An,C. Aymeric,J.L. Barthel,A. Bebas,P. Bitra,K. Bravo,A. Chevalier,F. Collinge,D.P. Crava,C.M. de Maagd,R.A. Duvic,B. Erlandson,M. Faye,I. Felfoldi,G. Fujiwara,H. Futahashi,R. Gandhe,A.S. Gatehouse,H.S. Gatehouse,L.N. Giebultowicz,J. Gomez,I. Grimmelikhuijzen,C.J. Groot,A.T. Hauser,F. Heckel,D.G. Hegedus,D.D. Hrycaj,S. Huang,L. Hull,J.J. Iatrou,K. Iga,M. Kanost,M.R. Kotwica,J. Li,C. Li,J. Liu,J. Lundmark,M. Matsumoto,S. Meyering-Vos,M. Millichap,P.J. Monteiro,A. Mrinal,N. Niimi,T. Nowara,D. Ohnishi,A. Oostra,V. Ozaki,K. Papakonstantinou,M. Popadic,A. Rajam,M.V. Saenko,S. Simpson,R.M. Soberon,M. Strand,M.R. Tomita,S. Toprak,U. Wang,P. Wee,C.W. Whyard,S. Zhang,W. Nagaraju,J. Ffrench-Constant,R.H. Herrero,S. Gordon,K. Swevers,L. Smagghe,G. et al 2011. RNA interference in Lepidoptera: an overview of successful and unsuccessful studies and implications for experimental design Journal of Insect Physiology, 57, 231-245.

Likitvivatanavong,S. Chen,J. Bravo,A. Soberon,M. Gill,S.S. 2011. Cadherin, Alkaline Phosphatase, and Aminopeptidase N as Receptors of Cry11Ba Toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan in Aedes aegypti? Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 77, 24-31.

Porta,H. Cancino-Rodezno,A. Soberon,M. Bravo,A. 2011. Role of MAPK p38 in the cellular responses to pore-forming toxins Peptides, 32, 601-606.

Canton,P.E. Reyes,E.Z. Escudero,I.R. Bravo,A. Soberon,M. 2011. Binding of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Cry4Ba to Cyt1Aa has an important role in synergism Peptides, 32, 595-600.

Libros y capítulos recientes

Bravo,A. Soberon,M. Gao,Y. 2015. Preface en: Bt Resistance: Characterization and Strategies for GM Crops Producing Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins. Oxford. CABI. pags. xi-xii

Bravo,A. Gomez,I. Mendoza,G. Gaytan,M. Soberon,M. 2015. Different models of the mode of action of 3d-Cry toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis en: Bravo,A. Bt resistance – characterization and strategies for GM crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis toxins. Oxford. CABI.

Soberon,M. Garcia-Gomez,B.I. Pacheco,S. Sanchez-Quintana J Tabashnik,B.E. Bravo,A. 2015. Countering pest resistance with genetically modified Bt toxins en: Bravo,A. Bt resistance-characterization and strategies for GM crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis. Oxford. CABI.

Bravo,A. Martinez-de-Castro,D.L. Sanchez-Quintana J Canton,P.E. Mendoza,G. Gomez,I. Pacheco,S. Garcia-Gomez,B.I. Onofre,J. Ocelotl,J. Soberon,M. 2015. Mechanism of action of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal toxins and their use in the control of insect pests en: Alouf,J.E. Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins 4a ed. Elsevier. pags. 858-873

Soberon,M. Gao,Y.L. Bravo,A. 2015. Bt resistance- characterization and strategies for GM crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis toxins. Oxford:. CABI.

Soberon,M. Gomez,I. Garcia-Gomez,B.I. Carmona,D. Ocelotl,J. Villanueva,F. Flores,B. Bravo,A. 2014. Mode of action of mosquitocidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis and their use in control of insect vectors of human diseases en: Biotechnology: beyond borders. CSIR National Chemical Laboratory. pags. 279-288

Bravo,A. Martinez-de-Castro,D.L. Sanchez,J. Munoz-Garay,C. Matus,V. Canton,P.E. Lopez-Diaz,J. Portugal,L. Mendoza,G. Soberon,M. 2014. Mode of action of Bacillus thuringiensis toxins and their use in transgenic crops to control insect pests en: Biotechnology: beyond borders. CSIR National Chemical Laboratory. pags. 122-134

Zuniga-Navarrete,F. Bravo,A. Soberon,M. Gomez,I. 2012. Role of GPI-anchored membrane receptors in the mode of action of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins en: Larramendy,M.L. Integrated Pest Management and Pest Control- Current and Future Tactics. Intech. pags. 551-566

Soberon,M. Bravo,A. 2011. Control de insectos con Bacillus thuringiensis, un método efectivo y compatible con el ambiente en: V CICLO MUJER CIENCIA. Mexico,D.F:. Editores Mujeres en la Ciencia. pags. 1-11

Bravo,A. del Rincon-Castro,M.C. Ibarra,J.E. Soberon,M. 2011. Towards a healthy control of insect pest: Potential use of Microbial insecticides en: Fernandez-Bolanos,J.G. Green trends in insect control. London. Royal Society of Chemistry. pags. 266-299


Bravo-de-la-Parra,A. 2015. Viejas y nuevas tendencias en el uso de la fluorescencia para el análisis Biotecnología en Movimiento.Revista de divulgación del Instituto de Biotecnología de la UNAM, 1, 26.

Bravo,A. 2013. Biotecnología agrícola y agroecología, Ciencia, Revista de la Academia Mexicana de Ciencia, 64, 68-77.

Vazquez-Pineda,A. Bravo-de-la-Parra,A. Mendoza de Gives,P. Liebano-Hernandez,E. Hernandez-Linares,I. Yanez-Perez,N. Aguilar-Marcelino,L. Ramirez-Vargas,G. Hernandez-Castro,E. Gutierrez-Segura,I. Lopez-Arellano,E. 2012. Uso de productos derivados de Bacillus thuringiensis como alternativa de control en nematodos de importancia veterinaria. Revisión Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias, 3, 77-88.


L. Pardo-López, E. B. Tabashnik, M. Soberón-Chavéz y M. A. Bravo-De La Parra 2009 Supresión de resistencia en insectos hacia las toxinas Cry de Bacillus thuringiensis utilizando toxinas que no requieren al receptor caderina.UNAM Europa, China, Canadá, India, Brasil y México (Números de solicitud pendientes). (en trámite)

M. Soberon M y M. A. Bravo 2008 Novel bacterial proteins with pesticidal activity.UNAM China 200680032864.5, Brasil PI0613111-5, India 200800272, Estados Unidos sin número y Europa 06795076.6. (en trámite)

L. Pardo-López, E. B. Tabashnik, M. Soberón-Chavéz y M. A. Bravo-De La Parra 2007 Supresión de resistencia en insectos hacia las toxinas Cry de Bacillus thuringiensis utilizando toxinas que no requieren al receptor caderina.UNAM PCT. (en trámite)

M. Soberon Ch. y M. A. Bravo de la P 2006 Novel bacterial proteins with pesticidal activity.UNAM PCT y Canadá 2625061. (en trámite)

M. Soberon y M. A. Bravo 2005 Novel bacterial proteins with pesticidal activity.UNAM Estados Unidos.

A. Bravo 2000 Confidencial.AVENTIS-UNAM Estados Unidos.

UNAM | UNAM Morelos | Mapa del Sitio | Biblioteca Virtual de Biotecnología | Acerca de | Servicios | e-mail | Publicaciones
Docencia | Seminarios | Nuestra Gente | Biblioteca | Libros y documentos en línea | Localización | Informes Institucionales | Estancias para estudiantes de Licenciatura
Uso interno. | Página Principal
3760 : 30277