Instituto de Biotecnologia UNAM

IBT-UNAM : Dra. Maria Alejandra Bravo de la Parra

Dra. Maria Alejandra Bravo de la Parra

Líder Académico »» Grupo


Tutor de Maestría y Doctorado

Nivel III del SNI

Departamento de Microbiología Molecular

Líneas de investigación



Oficina +52 (777) 329-1635
desde el D.F. 562-27635

red UNAM 27635
+52 (777) 311-4900 ext 227

Laboratorio +52 (777) 329-1624
desde el D.F. 562-27624

red UNAM 27624
+52 (777) 311-4900 ext 227

- Licenciatura: Investigacion Biomedica Basica, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas-UNAM (1985)
- Maestría: Investigacion Biomedica Basica, CIFN-UNAM (1986)
- Doctorado: Investigacion Biomedica Basica, CIFN-UNAM (1989)
- Mencion honorífica en examen profesional (1985)
- Mencion honorífica en examen de Doctorado
- Medalla "Gabino Barreda", Licenciatura (1985)
- Medalla "Gabino Barreda", Doctorado (1989)
- Estancia de Investigación: Companía Biotecnologica "Plant Genetic Systems", Gante, Belgica (1990-1991)

Premio a la mejor Investigación en Biotecnología Agrícola AgroBIO-México (2003)
Incluída en la lista de Expertos en Bioseguridad bajo el Protocolo de Cartagena de Seguridad y la Convención sobre Diversidad Biológica Universidad de Colombia (2003)
Miembro de la Academia Nacional de Ciencias (2002)
Disitnción Universidad Nacional para Jóvenes Académicos en el área de investigación en Ciencias Naturales UNAM (2000)
Premio de la Academia Mexicana de Ciencias en el área de Ciencias Naturales (1998)


M.C. Pablo Emiliano Canton

M.B Mary Carmen Torres

T.L. Diana Laura Martinez de castro

M.C. Violeta Matus

Publicaciones recientes

Gomez,I. Flores,B. Bravo,A. Soberon,M. 2014. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1AbMod toxin counters tolerance associated with low cadherin expression but not that associated with low alkaline phosphatase expression in Manduca sexta Peptides, Sep 17 [Epub ahead of print], .

Garcia,K. Ibarra,J.E. Bravo,A. Diaz,J. Gutierrez,D. Torres,P.V. Gomez de Leon P. 2014. Variability of Bacillus thuringiensis Strains by ERIC-PCR and Biofilm Formation Current Microbiology, Aug 17. [Epub ahead of print], .

Chavez,C. Recio-Totoro,B. Flores-Escobar,B. Lanz-Mendoza,H. Sanchez,J. Soberon,M. Bravo,A. 2014. Nitric oxide participates in the toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin to kill Manduca sexta larvae Peptides, Jul 22 [Epub ahead of print], .

Monnerat,R. Pereira,E. Teles,B. Martins,E. Praca,L. Queiroz,P. Soberon,M. Bravo,A. Ramos,F. Soares,C.M. 2014. Synergistic activity of Bacillus thuringiensis toxins against Simulium spp. larvae Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 121, 70-73.

Gomez,I. Sanchez,J. Munoz-Garay,C. Matus,V. Gill,S.S. Soberon,M. Bravo,A. 2014. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxins are versatile-proteins with multiple modes of action: two distinct pre-pores are involved in toxicity Biochemical Journal, 459, 383-396.

Canton,P.E. Lopez-Diaz,J.A. Gill,S.S. Bravo,A. Soberon,M. 2014. Membrane binding and oligomer membrane insertion are necessary but insufficient for Bacillus thuringiensis Cyt1Aa toxicity Peptides, 53, 286-291.

Portugal,L. Gringorten,J.L. Caputo,G.F. Soberon,M. Munoz-Garay,C. Bravo,A. 2014. Toxicity and mode of action of insecticidal Cry1A proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis in an insect cell line, CF-1 Peptides, 53, 292-299.

Tabashnik,B.E. Fabrick,J.A. Unnithan,G.C. Yelich,A.J. Masson,L. Zhang,J. Bravo,A. Soberon,M. 2013. Efficacy of Genetically Modified Bt Toxins Alone and in Combinations Against Pink Bollworm Resistant to Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab PLoS ONE, 8, e80496.

Lopez-Diaz,J.A. Canton,P.E. Gill,S.S. Soberon,M. Bravo,A. 2013. Oligomerization is a key step in Cyt1Aa membrane insertion and toxicity but not necessary to synergize Cry11Aa toxicity in Aedes aegypti larvae Environmental Microbiology, 15, 3030-3039.

Garcia-Gomez,B.I. Sanchez,J. Martinez de Castro,D.L. Ibarra,J.E. Bravo,A. Soberon,M. 2013. Efficient production of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1AMod toxins under regulation of cry3Aa promoter and single cysteine mutations in the protoxin region Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 79, 6969-6973.

Flores-Escobar,B. Rodriguez-Magadan,H. Bravo,A. Soberon,M. Gomez,I. 2013. Differential role of Manduca sexta aminopeptidase-N and alkaline phosphatase in the mode of action of Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 79, 4543-4550.

Bedoya-Perez,L.P. Cancino-Rodezno,A. Flores-Escobar,B. Soberon,M. Bravo,A. 2013. Role of UPR Pathway in Defense Response of Aedes aegypti against Cry11Aa Toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 14, 8467-8478.

Zuniga-Navarrete,F. Gomez,I. Pena,G. Bravo,A. Soberon,M. 2013. A Tenebrio molitor GPI-anchored alkaline phosphatase is involved in binding of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa to brush border membrane vesicles Peptides, 41, 81-86.

Soberon,M. Lopez-Diaz,J.A. Bravo,A. 2013. Cyt toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis: A protein fold conserved in several pathogenic microorganisms Peptides, 41, 87-93.

Pardo-Lopez,L. Soberon,M. Bravo,A. 2013. Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal 3-domain Cry toxins: Mode of action, insect resistance and consequences for crop protection FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 37, 3-22.

Bravo,A. Gomez,I. Porta,H. Garcia-Gomez,B.I. Rodriguez-Almazan,C. Pardo,L. Soberon,M. 2013. Evolution of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins insecticidal activity Microb Biotechnol, 6, 17-26.

Jimenez,A.I. Reyes,E.Z. Cancino-Rodezno,A. Bedoya-Perez,L.P. Caballero-Flores,G.G. Muriel-Millan,L.F. Likitvivatanavong,S. Gill,S.S. Bravo,A. Soberon,M. 2012. Aedes aegypti alkaline phosphatase ALP1 is a functional receptor of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa toxins Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 42, 683-689.

Soberon,M. Rodriguez-Almazan,C. Munoz-Garay,C. Pardo-Lopez,L. Porta,H. Bravo,A. 2012. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry and Cyt mutants useful to counter toxin action in specific environments and to overcome insect resistance in the field Pesticide Biochemistry And Physiology, 104, 111-117.

Cancino-Rodezno,A. Lozano,L. Oppert,C. Castro,J.I. Lanz-Mendoza,H. Encarnacion,S. Evans,A.E. Gill,S.S. Soberon,M. Jurat-Fuentes,J.L. Bravo,A. 2012. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Aedes aegypti Larval Midgut after Intoxication with Cry11Aa Toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis PLoS ONE, 7, e37034.

Rodriguez-Almazan,C. Reyes,E.Z. Zuniga-Navarrete,F. Munoz-Garay,C. Gomez,I. Evans,A.M. Likitvivatavanong,S. Bravo,A. Gill,S.S. Soberon,M. 2012. Cadherin binding is not a limiting step for Bacillus thuringiensis subs. israelensis Cry4Ba toxicity to Aedes aegypti larvae Biochemical Journal, 443, 711-717.

Porta,H. Munoz-Minutti,C. Soberon,M. Bravo,A. 2011. Induction of Manduca sexta Larvae Caspases Expression in Midgut Cells by Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab Toxin Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, , Article ID 938249.

Tabashnik,B.E. Huang,F. Ghimire,M.N. Leonard,B.R. Siegfried,B.D. Rangasamy,M. Yang,Y. Wu,Y. Gahan,L.J. Heckel,D.G. Bravo,A. Soberon,M. 2011. Efficacy of genetically modified Bt toxins against insects with different genetic mechanisms of resistance Nature Biotechnology, 29, 1128-1131.

Porta,H. Jimenez,G. Cordoba,E. Leon,P. Soberon,M. Bravo,A. 2011. Tobacco plants expressing the Cry1AbMod toxin suppress tolerance to Cry1Ab toxin of Manduca sexta cadherin-silenced larvae Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 41, 513-519.

Carmona,D. Rodriguez-Almazan,C. Munoz-Garay,C. Portugal,L. Perez,C. de Maagd,R.A. Bakker,P. Soberon,M. Bravo,A. 2011. Dominant Negative Phenotype of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab, Cry11Aa and Cry4Ba Mutants Suggest Hetero-Oligomer Formation among Different Cry Toxins PLoS ONE, 6, e19952.

Zavala,L.E. Pardo-Lopez,L. Canton,P.E. Gomez,I. Soberon,M. Bravo,A. 2011. Domains II and III of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin remain exposed to the solvent after insertion of part of domain I into the membrane Journal of Biological Chemistry, 286, 19109-19117 [Correction: vol 287 p 34499].

Bravo,A. Likitvivatanavong,S. Gill,S.S. Soberon,M. 2011. Bacillus thuringiensis: A story of a successful bioinsecticide Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 41, 423-431.

Likitvivatanavong,S. Chen,J. Evans,A.M. Bravo,A. Soberon,M. Gill,S.S. 2011. Multiple Receptors as Targets of Cry Toxins in Mosquitoes Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59, 2829-2838.

Rodriguez-Almazan,C. Ruiz de Escudero,I. Canton,P.E. Munoz-Garay,C. Perez,C. Gill,S.S. Soberon,M. Bravo,A. 2011. The amino- and carboxyl-terminal fragments of the Bacillus thuringiensis Cyt1Aa toxin have differential roles on toxin oligomerization and pore formation Biochemistry, 50, 388-396.

Terenius,O. Papanicolaou,A. Garbutt,J.S. Eleftherianos,I. Huvenne,H. Sriramana,K. Albrechtsen,M. An,C. Aymeric,J.L. Barthel,A. Bebas,P. Bitra,K. Bravo,A. Chevalier,F. Collinge,D.P. Crava,C.M. de Maagd,R.A. Duvic,B. Erlandson,M. Faye,I. Felfoldi,G. Fujiwara,H. Futahashi,R. Gandhe,A.S. Gatehouse,H.S. Gatehouse,L.N. Giebultowicz,J. Gomez,I. Grimmelikhuijzen,C.J. Groot,A.T. Hauser,F. Heckel,D.G. Hegedus,D.D. Hrycaj,S. Huang,L. Hull,J.J. Iatrou,K. Iga,M. Kanost,M.R. Kotwica,J. Li,C. Li,J. Liu,J. Lundmark,M. Matsumoto,S. Meyering-Vos,M. Millichap,P.J. Monteiro,A. Mrinal,N. Niimi,T. Nowara,D. Ohnishi,A. Oostra,V. Ozaki,K. Papakonstantinou,M. Popadic,A. Rajam,M.V. Saenko,S. Simpson,R.M. Soberon,M. Strand,M.R. Tomita,S. Toprak,U. Wang,P. Wee,C.W. Whyard,S. Zhang,W. Nagaraju,J. Ffrench-Constant,R.H. Herrero,S. Gordon,K. Swevers,L. Smagghe,G. et al 2011. RNA interference in Lepidoptera: an overview of successful and unsuccessful studies and implications for experimental design Journal of Insect Physiology, 57, 231-245.

Likitvivatanavong,S. Chen,J. Bravo,A. Soberon,M. Gill,S.S. 2011. Cadherin, Alkaline Phosphatase, and Aminopeptidase N as Receptors of Cry11Ba Toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan in Aedes aegypti? Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 77, 24-31.

Porta,H. Cancino-Rodezno,A. Soberon,M. Bravo,A. 2011. Role of MAPK p38 in the cellular responses to pore-forming toxins Peptides, 32, 601-606.

Canton,P.E. Reyes,E.Z. Escudero,I.R. Bravo,A. Soberon,M. 2011. Binding of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Cry4Ba to Cyt1Aa has an important role in synergism Peptides, 32, 595-600.

Gomez,I. Arenas,I. Pacheco,S. Bravo,A. Soberon,M. 2010. New Insights into the Mode of Action of Cry1Ab Toxin Used in Transgenic Insect-resistant Crops Southwestern Entomologist, 35, 387-390.

Munoz-Garay,C. Soberon,M. Bravo,A. 2010. Mode of Action of Bacillus thuringiensis-Genetically Modified Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod Toxins Role of Alkaline pH in Toxin Oligomerization Southwestern Entomologist, 35, 383-386.

Fernandez-Ruvalcaba,M. Pena-Chora,G. Romo-Martinez,A. Hernandez-Velazquez,V. de la Parra,A.B. De la Rosa,D.P. 2010. Evaluation of Bacillus thuringiensis pathogenicity for a strain of the tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, resistant to chemical pesticides Journal of Insect Science, 10, 186-190.

Vazquez-Pineda,A. Yanez-Perez,G.N. Lopez-Arellano,M.E. Mendoza-de-Gives,P. Liebano-Hernandez,E. Bravo-de-la-Parra,A. 2010. Biochemical Characterization of Two Purified Proteins of the IB-16 Bacillus thuringiensis Strains and Their Toxicity Against the Sheep Nematode Haemonchus contortus In vitro Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 57, 111-114.

Fernandez-Luna,M.T. Tabashnik,B.E. Lanz-Mendoza,H. Bravo,A. Soberon,M. Miranda-Rios,J. 2010. Single concentration tests show synergism among Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis toxins against the malaria vector mosquito Anophelesalbimanus Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 104, 231-233.

Arenas,I. Bravo,A. Soberon,M. Gomez,I. 2010. Role of alkaline phosphatase from Manduca sexta in the mechanism of action of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin Journal of Biological Chemistry, 285, 12497-503.

Martins,E.S. Monnerat,R.G. Queiroz,P.R. Dumas,V.F. Braz,S.V. de Souza Aguiar,R.W. Mendes Gomes,A.C. Sanchez,J. Bravo,A. Ribeiro,B.M. 2010. Midgut GPI- anchored proteins with alkaline phosphatase activity from the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) can be the putative receptors for the Cry1B protein of Bacillus thuringiensis Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 40, 138-145.

Fernandez-Luna,M.T. Lanz-Mendoza,H. Gill,S.S. Bravo,A. Soberon,M. Miranda-Rios,J. 2010. An alpha-amylase is a novel receptor for Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa toxins in the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles albimanus (Diptera: Culicidae) Environmental Microbiology, 12, 746-757.

Cancino-Rodezno,A. Alexander,C. Villasenor,R. Pacheco,S. Porta,H. Pauchet,Y. Soberon,M. Gill,S.S. Bravo,A. 2010. The mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 is involved in insect defense against cry toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 40, 58-63 [corrigendum 43 (9) 898 2013 ].

Libros y capítulos recientes

Soberon,M. Gomez,I. Garcia-Gomez,B.I. Carmona,D. Ocelotl,J. Villanueva,F. Flores,B. Bravo,A. 2014. Mode of action of mosquitocidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis and their use in control of insect vectors of human diseases en: Biotechnology: beyond borders. CSIR National Chemical Laboratory. pags. 279-288

Bravo,A. Martinez-de-Castro,D.L. Sanchez,J. Munoz-Garay,C. Matus,V. Canton,P.E. Lopez-Diaz,J. Portugal,L. Mendoza,G. Soberon,M. 2014. Mode of action of Bacillus thuringiensis toxins and their use in transgenic crops to control insect pests en: Biotechnology: beyond borders. CSIR National Chemical Laboratory. pags. 122-134

Zuniga-Navarrete,F. Bravo,A. Soberon,M. Gomez,I. 2012. Role of GPI-anchored membrane receptors in the mode of action of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins en: Larramendy,M.L. Integrated Pest Management and Pest Control- Current and Future Tactics. Intech. pags. 551-566

Soberon,M. Bravo,A. 2011. Control de insectos con Bacillus thuringiensis, un método efectivo y compatible con el ambiente en: V CICLO MUJER CIENCIA. Mexico,D.F:. Editores Mujeres en la Ciencia. pags. 1-11

Bravo,A. del Rincon-Castro,M.C. Ibarra,J.E. Soberon,M. 2011. Towards a healthy control of insect pest: Potential use of Microbial insecticides en: Fernandez-Bolanos,J.G. Green trends in insect control. London. Royal Society of Chemistry. pags. 266-299

Soberon,M. Pardo,L. Munoz-Garay,C. Sanchez,J. Gomez,I. Porta,H. Bravo,A. 2010. Pore Formation by Cry Toxins en: Lakey,J. Proteins: Membrane Binding and Pore Formation (serie Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology vol 677). Austin, TX. Landes Bioscience y Springer. pags. 127-142

Bravo,A. Gill,S.S. Soberon,M. 2010. Bacillus thuringiensis Mechanisms and Use with addendum 2010 en: Gill,S.S. Insect Control Biological and Synthetic Agents. Elsevier. pags. 247-282


Bravo,A. 2013. Biotecnología agrícola y agroecología, Ciencia, Revista de la Academia Mexicana de Ciencia, 64, 68-77.

Vazquez-Pineda,A. Bravo-de-la-Parra,A. Mendoza-de-Gives,P. Liebano-Hernandez,E. Hernandez-Linares,I. Yanez-Perez,N. Aguilar-Marcelino,L. Ramirez-Vargas,G. Hernandez-Castro,E. Gutierrez-Segura,I. Lopez-Arellano,E. 2012. Uso de productos derivados de Bacillus thuringiensis como alternativa de control en nematodos de importancia veterinaria. Revisión Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Pecuarias, 3, 77-88.


L. Pardo-López, E. B. Tabashnik, M. Soberón-Chavéz y M. A. Bravo-De La Parra 2009 Supresión de resistencia en insectos hacia las toxinas Cry de Bacillus thuringiensis utilizando toxinas que no requieren al receptor caderina.UNAM Europa, China, Canadá, India, Brasil y México (Números de solicitud pendientes). (en trámite)

M. Soberon M y M. A. Bravo 2008 Novel bacterial proteins with pesticidal activity.UNAM China 200680032864.5, Brasil PI0613111-5, India 200800272, Estados Unidos sin número y Europa 06795076.6. (en trámite)

L. Pardo-López, E. B. Tabashnik, M. Soberón-Chavéz y M. A. Bravo-De La Parra 2007 Supresión de resistencia en insectos hacia las toxinas Cry de Bacillus thuringiensis utilizando toxinas que no requieren al receptor caderina.UNAM PCT. (en trámite)

M. Soberon Ch. y M. A. Bravo de la P 2006 Novel bacterial proteins with pesticidal activity.UNAM PCT y Canadá 2625061. (en trámite)

M. Soberon y M. A. Bravo 2005 Novel bacterial proteins with pesticidal activity.UNAM Estados Unidos.

A. Bravo 2000 Confidencial.AVENTIS-UNAM Estados Unidos.

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